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Sejarah Suku Bugis

Suku Bugis adalah suku terbesar ketiga di Indonesia setelah suku Jawa dan Sunda. Berasal dari Sulawesi Selatan dan menyebar pula di propinsi-propinsi Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Tengah, Papua, Irian Jaya Barat, Kalimantan Timur, Kalimantan Selatan, Riau dan Riau Kepulauan, dan bahkan sampai ke Malaysia dan Brunei Darussalam.

 Sejarah

Suku Bugis adalah suku yang tergolong ke dalam suku suku Deutero-Melayu, atau Melayu muda. Masuk ke Nusantara setelah gelombang migrasi pertama dari daratan Asia tepatnya Yunan. Kata 'Bugis' berasal dari kata To Ugi, yang berarti orang Bugis. Penamaan "ugi" merujuk pada raja pertama kerajaan Cina (bukan negara Tiongkok, tapi yang terdapat di jazirah Sulawesi Selatan tepatnya Kecamatan Pammana Kabupaten Wajo saat ini) yaitu La Sattumpugi. Ketika rakyat La Sattumpugi menamakan dirinya, maka mereka merujuk pada raja mereka. Mereka menjuluki dirinya sebagai To Ugi atau orang-orang/pengikut dari La Sattumpugi. La Sattumpugi adalah ayah dari We Cudai dan bersaudara dengan Batara Lattu, ayahanda dari Sawerigading. Sawerigading sendiri adalah suami dari We Cudai dan melahirkan beberapa anak termasuk La Galigo yang membuat karya sastra terbesar didunia dengan jumlah kurang lebih 9000 halaman folio. Sawerigading Opunna Ware (Yang dipertuan di ware) adalah kisah yang tertuang dalam karya sastra I La Galigo dalam tradisi masyarakat Bugis. Kisah Sawerigading juga dikenal dalam tradisi masyarakat Luwuk Banggai, Kaili, Gorontalo dan beberapa tradisi lain di Sulawesi seperti Buton.

Perkembangan

Dalam perkembangannya, komunitas ini berkembang dan membentuk beberapa kerajaan lain. Masyarakat Bugis ini kemudian mengembangkan kebudayaan, bahasa, aksara, pemerintahan mereka sendiri. Beberapa kerajaan Bugis klasik dan besar antara lain Luwu, Bone, Wajo, Soppeng, Suppa dan sawitto (Kabupaten Pinrang), Sidenreng dan Rappang. Meski tersebar dan membentuk etnik Bugis, tapi proses pernikahan menyebabkan adanya pertalian darah dengan Makassar dan Mandar. Saat ini orang Bugis tersebar dalam beberapa Kabupaten yaitu Luwu, Bone, Wajo, Soppeng, Sidrap, Pinrang, Sinjai, Barru. Daerah peralihan antara Bugis dengan Makassar adalah Bulukumba, sinjai, Maros, Pangkajene Kepulauan. Daerah peralihan Bugis dengan Mandar adalah Kabupaten Polmas dan Pinrang.

Mata Pencaharian

Karena masyarakat Bugis tersebar di dataran rendah yang subur dan pesisir, maka kebanyakan dari masyarakat Bugis hidup sebagai petani dan nelayan. Mata pencaharian lain yang diminati orang Bugis adalah pedagang. Selain itu masyarakat Bugis juga mengisi birokrasi pemerintahan dan menekuni bidang pendidikan.

Hubungan Aspek Sejarah dengan Perantauan

Konflik antara kerajaan Bugis dan Makassar serta konflik sesama kerajaan Bugis pada abad 16, 17, 18 dan 19, menyebabkan tidak tenangnya daerah Sulawesi Selatan. Hal ini menyebabkan banyaknya orang Bugis bermigrasi terutama di daerah pesisir. Komunitas Bugis hampir selalu dapat ditemui didaerah pesisir di nusantara bahkan sampai ke Malaysia, Filipina, Brunei dan Thailand. Budaya perantau yang dimiliki orang Bugis didorong oleh keinginan akan kemerdekaan. Kebahagiaan dalam tradisi Bugis hanya dapat diraih melalui kemerdekaan.(Rahmat Munawar)

Kepiawaian suku Bugis-Makasar dalam mengarungi samudra cukup dikenal luas, dan wilayah perantauan mereka pun hingga Australia, Madagaskar dan Afrika Selatan. Bahkan, di pinggiran kota Cape Town, Afrika Selatan terdapat sebuah suburb atau setingkat Kecamatan, yang bernama Maccassar, sebagai tanda tangan penduduk setempat mengingat tanah asal nenek moyang mereka

Suku Bugis di Kalimantan Selatan

Pada abad ke-17 datanglah seorang pemimpin suku Bugis menghadap Raja Banjar yang berkedudukan di Kayu Tangi (Martapura) untuk diijinkan mendirikan pemukiman di Pagatan, Tanah Bumbu. Raja Banjar memberikan gelar Kapitan Laut Pulo kepadanya yang kemudian menjadi raja Pagatan. Upacara adat suku Bugis di daerah ini antara lain :

Sebagian besar suku Bugis tinggal di daerah pesisir timur Kalimantan Selatan yaitu Tanah Bumbu dan Kota Baru.

Berdasarkan sensus penduduk tahun 2000 oleh Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), populasi suku Bugis di Kalimantan Selatan berjumlah 73.037 jiwa, yang terdistribusi pada beberapa kabupaten dan kota, yaitu :

Bahasa Bugis


Bahasa Bugis adalah bahasa yang digunakan etnik Bugis di Sulawesi Selatan, yang tersebar di kabupaten sebahagian Kabupaten Maros, sebahagian Kabupaten Pangkep, Kabupaten Barru, Kota Pare-pare, Kabupaten Pinrang, sebahagian kabupaten Enrekang, sebahagian kabupaten Majene, Kabupaten Luwu, Kabupaten Sidenrengrappang, Kabupaten Soppeng,Kabupaten Wajo, Kabupaten Bone, Kabupaten Sinjai, Kabupaten Bulukumba, dan Kabupaten Bantaeng. Masyarakat Bugis memiliki penulisan tradisional memakai aksara Lontara.
Category: Sejarah | Added by: telukbone (27-Nov-2008)
Views: 7474 | Comments: 72 | Rating: 4.7/3 |
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